It is the time in a woman’s life when ovarian function gradually ceases to an end of the monthly menstrual cycle.

It is diagnosed once a woman stops menstruating for a period of more than one year. It may happen to you anytime between your 40’s and 50’s.

Menopause is a natural biological transition and most people may go through it without major complaints. But a few women may experience symptoms like hot flashes , steep disturbances mood changes.

Identifying these symptoms and seeking ways is vital as there are many treatments and modalities available to cope with the changes experienced.


Symptoms:   Symptoms of menopause include as follow:

  • Irregular periods
  • Hot flashes
  • Night sweat
  • Sleep disturbance
  • Mood changes
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Loss of libido
  • Weight gain
  • Thinning hair and dry skin
  • Breast changes


  1. Natural causes
  • Natural decline of reproductive hormones leading to irregularity of menses till you have no more periods.
  • Chemotherapy and Radiation:

        These cancer therapies may induce menopause causing symptoms shortly after course of treatment.

Changes experienced by body as a result of menopause

  • Heart and Cardiovascular changes

       As estrogen level declines, your risk for cardiovascular diseases increases.

  • Osteoporosis

        Estrogen is protective for bone health and after menopause bones become brittle, weak with increased risk for fractures of hips, wrists and spine.

  • Weight gain

        As a result of decreased metabolism, there is a high risk of weight gain.

  • Sexual function

        Vaginal dryness and loss of libido are result of decreased estrogen in the body.

  • Urinary complaints

        As the tissues of urethra and vagina loose elasticity, you may experience involuntary loss of urine and may also put to at increased risk of urinary infections.

  • Skin and Hair changes

        Dryness of skin, thinning of hair and loss of number of hairs follicle may also be seen.

Treatment modalities

  • Counseling
  • Lifestyle changes
  • Diet-modifications
  • Exercises
  1. Pelvic floor exercise
  2. Cardio training
  • Hormone replacement surgery
  1. Local application
  2. Oral pills
  • Primary ovarian inefficiency :

       Affecting 1% of women who may experience menopause before age 40 which may adversely affect their health and requires easily detection and treatment.

  1. Other causes
  • Surgical
  1. Hysterectomy:

        Stoppage of menses without experiencing other menopausal symptoms.

  1. Hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo:


Where there is sudden cessation of hormones leading to intense symptoms.