Cancer incidence is increasing worldwide with each passing year. The commonest cause of cancer death in females being
- Cancer of Breasts
- Cancer of Cervix
- Cancer of Uterus
- Others: a. Cancer of Ovary
b. Cancer of Vulva
Early identification and treatment makes the biggest difference to overall survival and the quality of life. There are specific precancerous lesions which can be identified for female reproductive organs and if addressed at that stage, prevent the rise of developing cancer altogether.
The goals of preventive oncology are to identifying these high rise conditions in asymptomatic patients and treat them so as to prevent cancer.
- Breast Cancer
- Regular self breast examination
- Annual breast examination by trained professionals
- Annual breast sono- mammograms to detect precancerous lesions.
- Certain tests: to be performed in cases with family history of breast cancer (BRCA I / #)
2. Cervical Cancer
- Cancer cervix vaccination to girls between ages 9-13 in 2-3 doses to prevent risk of HIV infection which is a leading cause of cancer cervix.
- Annual pap smear / liquid cytology in women who are sexually active to detect precancerous lesions of cervix and treat them accordingly
- Counselling regarding safe sex techniques in women who are at high risk of developing cervix cancer.
3. Uterine Cancer
- Annual ultrasound of pelvis to identify women who are at high risk for developing uterine cancer.
- Hysteroscopy with endometrial sampling in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.
4. Cancer of Ovary
- Ovarian Cancers rarely present with precancerous lesions are asymptomatic for a prolonged period before identification. They are associated with high rise of diagnosis at late stage and increase risk of mortality.
- The best defence weapon against cancer of ovary is:
- Annual Ultrasound
- Tumor Markers : CA 125, LEA, AFP, HCG Testing